How to Learn Linux Server Basics : The Complete Beginner’s Guide
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Linux – Need a knowledge Update !

I hope the term “Linux” is quite popular and known to as from primary school IT related text books. But we all have just did a mug up for exams and forgot it . So if you think it’s the time to re- boost and have a rewind to update your knowledge about basics of Linux.


Then follow me, here we go for the same.


Anyways I will remind you that its nothing but an OS , well Linux (linodes run) is an operating system in simple words. Linux handles Linode’s hardware and give services to other software, which are needs to be run.


It has been in development process since 1991. It has versatile use and is used in all over the world. For working with Linux system one will need to give a user name and password.


Most of the PC-based Linux systems have two basic modes for a system to run in: whichever fast and moderate in text console mode, multitasking and several-user features, or in graphical mode, which is better but needs more system resources.

Getting Started with Linux Server : How to install Linux on Your Server

Before starting installing the Linux operating system, one concept should be introduced. It comes in few different versions, which are known as distributions. These different distributions are installing different default packages of software.


Installing Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, is best for best Linux server software beginners, because it is very easy to handle with its available support system which doesn’t change over and over.


In the Starting process one need to get to choose the drop down menu, for beginning choose Ubuntu 14.04 LTS.

Install Linux

Basic Linux Commands for Beginners :

The Terminal

Generally when one access a cloud server by using a terminal shell. The terminal shells allow completing commands on the droplet.


Every administrative task can be completed by using the terminal. It includes file management, installation, and client management.


Executing any command is done by typing it and pressing Enter. Here are the few basic Linux terminal commands that every beginners need to know.

Navigation

Linux has a dictionary tree file systems. This can be defining as, that a folder can be created inside other folder or directories, which can be present in any folder or directory.


To look into the folder or directory, just need to active in:

pwd



The pwd here means “print working directory" and will open or print the path of current directory. The output to this:

/home/foo

This indicates that current active folder or directory is foo, is inside home, which is in the root directory, /.


To locate other files, folders and directories which are exists in the present working directory:

ls

This will provide a list of names of files, folders and directories. To find the way into a directory, use the name of the directory:

cd <name of directory>

This will change the present working directory to the specific directory as one want to be specific. This can be seen with pwd. Moreover, one can specify .. for the change to the directory to one level up in the path. For getting back to original file or directory:

cd ..

New directories can also be created in presently working directory. Example- For creating a new directory named bar:

mkdir bar

after that one can

cd

Into bar directory, if one wanted. Directory bar can also be deleted if there is no longer use or need of it:



rm -d bar

rm –d  

File Manipulation

Files can’t be used with

cd

Which is stands for "change directory".


In its place, files can be seen. For example if one have a file baz in its existing directory:

cat baz

This command will print out the complete list of contents of baz on the terminal.


With lengthy files, this is unfeasible and unusable. For paginating the output command:

less baz

This command will also print the contents of baz, but one by one on the terminal page start the file.


By using the spacebar a page can be advanced or use the arrow keys to go up and down at a time to one line. For quitting out of less, Press q.


For creating a new file named foobar:

touch foobar

This will create an empty file named foobar in existing working directory.


If foobar is not looking a good name, one can change it to faazar



mv foobar faazar

mv

Here the meaning of mv is move and a file or directory can be moved from one place to another by using mv. The original specific file can be moved to a new location in the existing working directory, thus renaming it.


And a file can also be copied from old location a new one. To bringing back foobar name with keeping faazar too, command:

cp faazar foobar

Here cp is the short form of copy. By copying faazar to a new file named foobar, one can generate the original file in a new file named differently.


There are many options for file edits, such as include vim, emacs, nano, and pico.

nano

nano is best to be start working for beginners. It is very simple and easy for use.


for editing text into existing file foobar:

nano foobar

This will immediately open a space where one can start typing text to edit foobar file.


For saving this edit written text, one should press Ctrl-X then y. This will return to the shell with a recently saved foobar file. Now foobar has a quantity of text to view when using.

cat

Or

less

For deleting the empty faazar folder or directory command:

rm faazar
faazar

The File system Hierarchy Standard

Almost every Linux distributions are acquiescent with universal standard of file system directory structure. The file system hierarchy standard can be defined as determined directories for diverse purposes.


The symbol “/” is used to point out the root directory in the file system hierarchy understandable by the file system hierarchy standard. Once a user logs into the shell, they will be brought to their own user directory in “/” home.


The file system hierarchy defines “/” home as containing the home directories for usual users. Because default, reasonable locations are provided for many diverse files, system of files for different purposes is simplified.

Permissions

For a system with several user accounts, it is very important to decide who is authorized to interact with which files. Linux supports unix-style file system permissions, which restrict users how, can read and write definite files.

For look into the man-pages for any command in Linux:

man <command>

For example,

man rm

Here rm displays the purpose of rm, to use it, what are the available options, examples of use, and more useful information.

example

I hope guys you are now updated with a fresh piece of information on Linux Server Basics with useful commands, but if we missed something here then we promise to update the same as a second part to keep you updated always.


So all those who are avarice to update their brain with geek knowledge stay connected.

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